|Fundamental Method||Cone-isolation Contrast Sensitivity|
|Co-development with US Air Force||Creative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, OBVA Team|
|Computer||Dell AIO PC with custom, high-precision color profiled 22" anti-glare monitor, Windows 10 Pro, keyboard and mouse|
|4-button response pad||Konan exclusive USB answer interface eliminates letter recognition problems and hunt and peck on a keyboard or mouse|
|USB Colorimeter||OEM i1Pro with built-in fast system color verification and automated calibration|
PDF to network printer
PDF to network EMR location
|Testing Options||All cones, individual L, M, S cones or any combination; Monocular or binocular; Adaptive or Full Threshold; user selected test distances with dynamic optotype sizing; Tone feedback options|
|Onscreen help||Illustrated on-screen help for reporting features|
|Patient Instructions and interactive demo widget||Available in multiple languages, illustrated patient instruction page includes an interactive demo to assure instructions are understood and demonstrated proficiency prior to testing including auditory feedback as "correct" tone or "miss" tone|
|Trends Analysis||Detailed trending over time by eye, by isolated cone|
|Psi Threshold||Robust, academic-based Bayesian threshold method with on-screen reporting of Standard Error estimations by response|
|Adaptive Testing||User-selected adaptive test seamlessly reduces test time for subjects with low standard error score|
|Achromatic Contrast Sensitivity||Contrast sensitivity reported at 4 contrast levels, and AUC indicative of overall functional vision|
|Monocular and binocular||User selected administration of tests OD and OS or OU|
|Response tones||Clear, language-independent response feedback, as high (correct) - low (incorrect) tones, or operator selected high tone only, and no auditory feedback|
|On-screen help||Beautifully illustrated on-screen help|
|Response-time reporting||Expressly with the 4-button response pad, patient difficulty in answering is assessed as a separate measure|
|Regulatory||FDA Listed | CE | TGA | Health Canada|
Color Vision Deficiency Quick Facts
- Genetic color vision deficiencies are found in approx:
- 8% of males, more common
- 0.5% of females, less common
- Most color perception problems are color vision “deficiencies” rather than color “blindness”
- Protan type deficiencies are reduced sensitivity to red from “L-cones”
- Deutan type deficiencies are reduced sensitivity to green from “M-cones”
- Tritan type deficiencies are reduced sensitivity to blue from “S-cones”
- Both Protan and Deutan deficiencies confuse red and green colors as being similar
- Protan and Deutan deficiencies are typically genetically inherited but may also be acquired
- Tritan type deficiencies are typically acquired and may be more common than genetic types
- Most color deficient people see colors, but have some colors that appear the same
- Most printed color vision tests do not test for acquired color vision deficiencies
Is Color Vision Testing Reimbursable under CPT 92283 (USA customers)?
Extended color vision testing is described under CPT code 92283 as a psychophysical test of visual function. Deficiencies and changes in perception of color are ideally tested monocularly and are a summation of function from the visual pathway, optic nerve, and retina, especially the macula with the highest density of cone receptors.
An example of detailed description of procedures, indications, and coding, documentation, and indication guidelines may be found at Decision-Maker Plus (DecisionMakerPlus.net).
What happened to the ColorDx Pseudo-Isochromatic ("PIP") Tests?
Konan’s pseudo-isochromatic method tests were discontinued after 5 years in the market in January 2018.
Pseudo-isochromatic color vision testing has played an important role in assessment of color vision testing for more than a century, primarily used for identification of the presence of genetic “colorblindness”. Konan will continue to provide support to Konan’s customers with these “PIP” test products for 12 months from date of purchase.
Contact Konan (firstname.lastname@example.org) for further information on pseudo-isochromatic “PIP” (confusion color), color ordering products such as D-15, and Konan’s new CCT-HD*, the high fidelity, cone-isolation contrast sensitivity test.
*CCT-HD developed in collaboration with the US Air Force, School of Aerospace Medicine, Operational Based Vision Assessment Team under CRADA (Creative Research and Development Agreement).
Female color deficiencies.
Women can also be color deficient, although with genetic deficiencies, only about one-tenth as frequently as men. About 8% of men and 0.5% of women have genetic color vision deficiencies, of which most are simple, recessive traits as red-green deficiencies due to “sex-linked” X chromosomes. Men are mainly affected as women have two X chromosomes and men have an X and a Y chromosome. If a man’s one X chromosome is defective, he will be color deficient, whereas a both of a woman’s chromosomes would need to have this trait in order to have color deficiency (“colorblind”).
Acquired color deficiencies are likely to be the most common type of deficiency with women occuring generally equally in both genders and more prevelent with age.
Who should be tested for color deficiencies (color blindness)?
All children should have their color vision tested before starting school, ideally in pre-school. The most common deficiencies found are typically genetic and are approximately 10 times more common in males.
Teens and Young Adults:
Persons who are considering occupations or professions for the future where normal color vision is needed or required should be assessed to enhance career decisions for both job performance and safety. Examples are pilots, navigators, air traffic controllers, school bus drivers, some law enforcement personnel, electricians, electronic technicians, railroad conductors, medical technologists, and dental lab technicians. Genetic deficiencies that have not been well screened while young can be a real help in formulating a successful career. Acquired deficiencies are less common during younger years.
Older Adults and Seniors:
As we age, there are multiple pathways and combinations to acquired color deficiencies that can be valuable as diagnostic points. Examples are many diseases (diabetes, MS, and glaucoma), common aging changes such as cataracts, and hundreds of pharmaceuticals, products, and substances commonly used or prescribed. Examples of the many substances affecting color vision can be toxicity from alcohol, aspirin, herbal medicines, ibuprofin, and prednisone, and marijuana. The newest electronic color vision diagnostics that are highly sensitive and specific provide physicians with a new diagnostic tool that may also be helpful for easily assessing changes over time that was not possible with historically used printed color test books. Konan’s ColorDx CCT-HD is an example of a comprehensive color vision diagnostic test that also includes trends analysis with standard errors to better understand changes over time with scalar measured values. Both genetic and aquired color deficiencies may be present simultaneously and are individually detected and quantified with the CCT-HD test.
Can someone who is color normal become color vision deficient?
Yes with increasing age, acquired color deficiencies become more common and can be an important sign accompanying many diseases, toxicity or side affects of many drugs and substances prescribed or used day-to-day. This important sign is frequently not tested even though a color test is administrated as common printed color vision test do not test blue type (S-cone) deficiencies (Ishihara color tests are an example of tests that do not have blue / S-cone testing features)
Different from genetic types that are quite stable through life, acquired deficiencies vary over time, are conditioned on the cause, and can progress to to severe monchromatic colorblindness. A person can have both genetic and acquired deficiencies.
There are broad catagories of condtions that may lead to acquired color deficiencies:
- Toxic Chemicals
Examples of how color deficient people see the world.
The vast majority of color deficient persons see the world in color too, but common color-differentiated situations may provide challenging consequences not well appreciated by color normal individuals. Following are examples of how common types of color vision deficiencies affect those persons in day-to-day circumstances.
How do color vision deficient people cope with their vision?
Each color vision deficient person has their own techniques to cope with their type and severity of color confusions. Here are some examples of methods used by color deficient patients:
- When approaching a traffic light, don’t assess the color, assess the position
- When dressing, get someone’s advice on whether the parts of an outfit match well. Consider wearing the “set” instead of randomly mixing and matching. Advice on practical strategies for clothing selection is featured here.
- When you need to color code something at work or school, pay close attention to the labeled color
- When cooking food that needs thorough cooking for safety, pay close attention to the time and temperature. A cooking / digital thermometer is very helpful. If you don’t know the time / temperature required, look it up online. When in doubt, ask someone with color normal vision.